Interaction is critical for data analysis and sensemaking. However, designing interactive physicalizations is challenging as it requires cross-disciplinary knowledge in visualization, fabrication, and electronics. Interactive physicalizations are typically produced in an unstructured manner, resulting in unique solutions for a specific dataset, problem, or interaction that cannot be easily extended or adapted to new scenarios or future physicalizations. To mitigate these challenges, we introduce a computational design pipeline to 3D print network physicalizations with integrated sensing capabilities. Networks are ubiquitous, yet their complex geometry also requires significant engineering considerations to provide intuitive, effective interactions for exploration. Using our pipeline, designers can readily produce network physicalizations supporting selectionthe most critical atomic operation for interactionby touch through capacitive sensing and computational inference. Our computational design pipeline introduces a new design paradigm by concurrently considering the form and interactivity of a physicalization during fabrication. We evaluate our approach using (i) computational evaluations, (ii) three usage scenarios focusing on general visualization tasks, and (iii) expert interviews. The proposed design paradigm shift enables us to produce generalizable techniques that can lower the barrier to physicalization research, creation, and adoption.

This website provides supplemetal materials discussed in the paper.

Table matrix with 47 rows and three main columns: Context, Structure, Interactions. For each row, each column is colored in if it  fulfills the coding critiera.


S. Sandra Bae, Takanori Fujiwara, Anders Ynnerman, Ellen Yi-Luen Do, Michael L. Rivera, and Danielle Albers Szafir. 2023. "A Computational Design Process to Fabricate Sensing Network Physicalizations". In: IEEE Transactions on Visualization & Computer Graphics (VIS '23) (Melbourne, Australia, October 2227, 2023).


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